Science & Technology

The Industrial Revolution, which started in the 18th century in England, brought major
technological changes. Technology evolves very quickly; its process is unstoppable and is
affecting our everyday life.
Nowadays, we cannot imagine our lives without electrical appliances such as microwave ovens, cookers, fridges, freezers, food processors, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, and others. As for gadgets or devices, there are mobile phones, computers, and tablets.
However, great progress has been made in the fields of transport, biology, medicine, and space exploration.


  • It is a symbol of comfortable and quick communication.
  • You can call or text your friends anytime.
  • The first mobile phone was made in 1973 by Martin Cooper, an American engineer. First mobile phones were oversized and heavy, looking like a brick, and the battery lasted only about 25 minutes.
  • Now, mobile phones are pocket-sized mini-computers, and the battery can last for a few days.
  • Smartphones were introduced much later, in 2007, and they include a camera that allows us to take high-quality photos, internet browsing, and a variety of applications such as GPS, weather forecast, WhatsApp, Instagram, Messenger, educational apps like Duolingo, Chatterbox, BBC Learning, Spotify, and many more. Additionally, smartphones come with an alarm clock, calculator, and many other useful applications.

The problems with mobile phones are that:

  1. We tend to use them excessively for even the smallest things, which can lead to
  2. They can be dangerous for people who are driving.
  3. They can cause problems at schools as teachers get upset if students forget to turn
    them off.

Part 1

  1. What kinds of electrical appliances do you have at home?
  2. What do you use them for?
  3. Can you compare the first mobile phones to today’s phones?
  4. What are the biggest problems associated with communicating via mobile
  5. What applications do you use?
  6. How much screen time fills your day?


  • The first computers were very large and slow.
  • Today, modern computers are very fast and small.
  • The Apple PC was invented in 1976 by two American computer engineers: Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.
  • A computer has peripherals – devices that can be attached to a computer: a printer, a
    keyboard, a mouse, a mousepad, a USB port (or a memory stick/ a pendrive/ a flash drive), speakers.

The history of the Internet

  • The internet began as a military project, but later scientists started using it too.
  • It started in 1969.
  • In the 1980s, people started calling it the “Internet

Today, everyone has access to the internet, and most people use it daily for:

  • Checking and sending emails from your inbox,
  • doing schoolwork and studying,
  • printing documents and photos,
  • using internet banking,
  • online shopping,
  • watching films and series,
  • listening to music,
  • sharing photos,
  • e-billing,
  • chatting with friends,
  • booking tickets, hotels, and holidays,
  • gaming,
  • making video calls,
  • reading and writing blogs,
  • reading books, papers, articles, and other written content,
  • looking up information, such as opening hours for public offices, train and bus schedules, weather forecasts and so for,
  • searching for a job.

Drawbacks/ cons/ disadvantages/ negative aspects of the Internet

  • Young people are often glued to their computer screens, and as a result, they may become “mouse potatoes”. They don’t do any physical exercise, become lazy, and too comfortable. They can become obsessed with their PC, and may even become more physically and verbally aggressive as a result.
  • People tend to forget about face-to-face communication and meetings, living more in a virtual reality.
  • There are rude and aggressive opinions on websites, and some users may be subject to online harassment or bullying.
  • Scams and hoaxes are common on the internet, with some people being tricked into giving away personal information or money.
  • Pornography, including child pornography, can be found online and is a serious concern.
  • Sometimes, computers can freeze or stop responding, and need to be rebooted to resolve the issue.
  • People binge-watch Netflix series.

SOCIAL SITES are one of the main means of communication worldwide.


  • Instagram is a social media platform that allows users to share photos and videos with their followers.
  • It was launched in 2010.
  • You can create an account and upload photos and videos, edit them with filters and other tools, and share them on your profile.
  • You can also follow other users and see their posts in their feed.
  • Instagram is known for its visually-focused content, and it has become a popular platform for influencers, businesses, and individuals to showcase their photography skills, products, or personal lives.


  • YouTube is a popular online video-sharing platform that allows users to upload, share, and view videos.
  • It was founded in 2005 and has grown into one of the largest websites on the internet, with billions of users and millions of videos available for viewing.
  • On Youtube, you can find music, gaming, entertainment, education, and more.
  • YouTube has become an essential part of modern internet culture, and it continues to evolve.


  • TikTok is a social media app that allows users to create and share short videos, typically between 15-60 seconds long.
  • The app has gained popularity for its wide range of content, from dance and music videos to comedy sketches and lip-syncs. ilip-sync refers to the act of creating a video of oneself or someone else lip-syncing to a song or audio
  • With its popularity among younger generations, TikTok has become an important platform for social media marketing and influencer partnerships.


  • Twitch is a popular live-streaming platform that primarily focuses on video game
    streaming, but also features streams related to music, art, talk shows, and more.
  • The platform allows users to watch live or pre-recorded content, interact with other viewers, and chat with streamers in real-time.
  • The platform has also become a significant player in the esports industry.
  • Twitch has become a popular destination for gamers and non-gamers alike.

part 2

  1. Why did the internet start and when did it begin?
  2. Compare computers today to those in the past.
  3. Name some peripherals.
  4. Who invented the Apple computer?
  5. List the advantages and disadvantages of computers and the internet.
  6. Provide some information about the most popular social networking sites.


  • The invention of the wheel had an incalculable impact on transportation.
  • In the past, travel was much worse, with people relying on horses or walking, which was free but time-consuming and uncomfortable.
  • Nowadays, it is common to travel by car, train, tram, or plane. For example, cars give us independence and freedom, save us time, and allow us to go wherever and whenever we want.
  • Autonomous vehicles: autonomous vehicles are currently on the roads in some limited capacity, but they are not yet widely available for purchase by the general public. This type of cars is still in a testing stage.


  • The first man sent into space was the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.
  • In 1969, the first man to step on the Moon was American Neil Armstrong. He made his famous statement: “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind
  • Space tourism is still in its early stages.
  • Companies like Virgin Galactic and Blue Origin are planning to offer space tourism flights in the near future, but the exact timeline is still uncertain.


  • The first televisions were small and only showed black and white.
  • Nowadays, televisions are large, flat, and in colour.
  • We have a wide selection of channels to choose from, such as news channels,
    entertainment channels, sports channels, educational channels, children’s channels, music channels, etc.
  • One of the current trends in radio is the continued growth of online streaming and
    podcasting. Many radio stations are now offering their programs online, so listeners may tune in from anywhere with an internet connection.
  • A podcast is a digital audio program that can be downloaded or streamed online. We can listen to podcasts via Apple Podcasts, Spotify, or Google Podcasts. Podcasts can cover a wide range of topics, from news and politics to entertainment and pop culture, and can be created by individuals, organizations, or media companies.


  • Great progress has been made in the field of medicine.
  • Today, we are able to cure some diseases that were incurable in the past.
  • Medical progress prolongs our lives and makes them easier.
  • We are now able to repair or replace damaged human organs, which was impossible in the past.
  • One of the biggest advancements in medicine was the discovery of penicillin by
    Alexander Fleming and the invention of the X-ray machine and laser.
  • Artificial Intelligence: AI is increasingly being used in medicine to analyze medical
    images, help with diagnosis, and even develop new drugs.

part 3

  1. Name some modes of transportation that make our lives easier.
  2. Who was the first person to step on the moon?
  3. Do you remember his famous words after stepping on the moon’s surface?
  4. Name some TV programs that we can watch.
  5. What progress has been made in the field of medicine?
  6. What impact does this progress have on our lives?


  • The light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison.
  • The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
  • Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel.
  • The printing press was invented by Johann Gutenberg.
  • Nuclear power plants are useful for generating electricity but also pose significant dangers to people. The catastrophic nuclear explosion in Chernobyl, Ukraine in the 1980s serves as a reminder. Alternative sources of energy include solar energy from the sun, wind energy from windmills, and water energy from watermills and power stations.
  • Some of the modern discoveries are: gene editing technology, COVID-19 vaccines, Climate Change research.


  • Brain drain is a term for emigration of individuals who seek a higher standard of living abroad and do not come back home.
  • For the country itself, it is a serious loss of highly skilled and educated people.
  • Factors that cause this phenomenon are: a lack of job opportunities, low salaries, bad working conditions, political instability and lack of security.

part 4

  1. Can you name any significant scientists? What are they famous for?
  2. What alternative sources of energy are considered green?
  3. Explain the phenomenon of “brain drain.”
  4. Which inventions are essential to your life?


1. Incalculable [ɪnˈkælkjʊləbᵊl] sknesmierny, nevyčísliteľný

2. impact [ˈɪmpækt] skvplyv, účinok

3. unstoppable [ʌnˈstɒpəbᵊl] sknezastaviteľné

4. science [ˈsaɪəns] skveda

5. scientist [ˈsaɪəntɪst] skvedec

6. scientific [ˌsaɪənˈtɪfɪk] skvedecký

7. predictable [prɪˈdɪktəbᵊl] skpredvídateľný

8. to affect [tuː əˈfɛkt] skovplyvniť

9. to prolong [tuː prəʊˈlɒŋ] skpredĺžiť

10. leap [liːp] skskok dopredu

11. to evolve [tuː ɪˈvɒlv] skvyvíjať sa

12. major [ˈmeɪʤə] skhlavný, výynamný

13. majority [məˈʤɒrɪti] skväčšina

14. distance [ˈdɪstəns] skvzdialenosť

15. distant [ˈdɪstənt] / remote [rɪˈməʊt] skvzdialený

16. as [æz] skpretože

17. to carry out [tuː ˈkæri aʊt] skvykonávať

18. nonstick [ˈnɒnˈstɪk] sknepriľnavý, teflónový

19. ongoing [ˈɒŋˌɡəʊɪŋ] skprebiehajúci, pokračujúci

20. harm [hɑːm] skškoda

21. harmful [ˈhɑːmfʊl] skškodlivý

22. inventor [ɪnˈvɛntə] skvynálezca

23. explorer [ɪksˈplɔːrə] skvýskumník

24. researcher [rɪˈsɜːʧə] skbádateľ

25. preliminary [prɪˈlɪmɪnəri] skpredbežný, prípravný

26. label [ˈleɪbl] skoznačiť, nálepka

27. pocket-sized [ˈpɒkɪtsaɪzd] skvreckový

28. oversized [ˈəʊvəsaɪzd] sknadrozmerný

29. precautions [prɪˈkɔːʃᵊnz] skpreventívne opatrenia

30. caution [ˈkɔːʃᵊn] skopatrnosť, varovanie

Science Space X

31. access to [ˈæksɛs tuː] skprístup ku

32. to concern [tuː kənˈsɜːn] sktýkať sa

33. sufficient [səˈfɪʃənt] skpostačujúci, dostatočný

34. insufficient [ˌɪnsəˈfɪʃənt] sknedostatočný, nepostačujúci

35. exposure [ɪksˈpəʊʒə] skvystavenie (sa)

36. exposed [ɪksˈpəʊzd] skvystavený

37. evidence [ˈɛvɪdəns] skdôkaz

38. evident [ˈɛvɪdənt] skdokazateľný, očividný

39. addict [ˈædɪkt] skzávislý človek

40. rating [ˈreɪtɪŋ] skohodnotenie, hodnotenie

41. phenomenon [fɪˈnɒmɪnən] skjav, úkaz

42. a lack of [ə læk ɒv] sknedostatok

43. to swap [tuː swɒp] skvymieňať

44. to update [tuː ʌpˈdeɪt] skaktualizovať, obnoviť

45. to scroll down [tuː skrəʊl daʊn] skposúvať sa dole

46. permanently [ˈpɜːmənəntli] skstále, natrvalo

47. peripherals [pəˈrɪfərəlz] skpríslušenstvo PC

48. inbox [ˈɪnˌbɒks] skmail schránka

49. shortcuts [ˈʃɔːtkʌts] skskratky

50. memory stick [ˈmɛməri stɪk] skpendrive – USB

51. to reboot [tuː ˌriːˈbuːt] skreštartovať

52. incurable [ɪnˈkjʊərəbᵊl] skneliečiteľný

53. glued to [ɡluːd tuː] skprilepený k

54. brain drain [breɪn dreɪn] skodliv mozgov

55. to divide by [tuː dɪˈvaɪd baɪ] skdeliť

56. division [dɪˈvɪʒən] skdelenie

57. to multiply by [tuː ˈmʌltɪplaɪ baɪ] sknásobiť, krát

58. multiplication [ˌmʌltɪplɪˈkeɪʃᵊn] sknásobenie

59. minus [ˈmaɪnəs] skmínus

60. to subtract [tuː səbˈtrækt] skodčítať, odrátať


61. subtraction [səbˈtrækʃᵊn] skodčítanie

62. to add [tuː æd] skspočítať, pripočítať

63. addition [əˈdɪʃᵊn] sksčítanie

64. equals [ˈiːkwəlz] skrovná sa

65. features [ˈfiːʧəz] skfunkcie, črty

66. research [rɪˈsɜːʧ] skvýskum

67. electrical [ɪˈlɛktrɪkəl] skelectric – elektrický

68. outdated [aʊtˈdeɪtɪd] skneaktuálny, zastaralý

69. species [ˈspiːʃiːz] skdruhy

70. to log in [tuː lɒɡ ɪn] skprihlásiť sa

71. to log out [tuː lɒɡ aʊt] skodhlásiť sa

72. devices [dɪˈvaɪsɪz] skzariadenia

73. appliances [əˈplaɪənsɪz] skspotrebiče

74. light bulb [laɪt bʌlb] skžiarovka

75. plug [plʌɡ] skzástrčka (kábel/vidlica)

76. socket [ˈsɒkɪt] skzásuvka na stene

77. to respond [tuː rɪsˈpɒnd] skreagovať, odpovedať

78. e-billing [iː-ˈbɪlɪŋ] skelektronická faktúra

79. flooded [ˈflʌdɪd] skzaplavený

80. versatile [ˈvɜːsətaɪl] skviacúčelový, univerzálny

81. wheel [wiːl] skkoleso

82. mankind [mænˈkaɪnd] skľudstvo

83. to generate [tuː ˈʤɛnəreɪt] skvyrábať, vytvárať

84. windmill [ˈwɪnmɪl] skveterný mlyn

85. laser [ˈleɪzə] sklaser

86. dynamite [ˈdaɪnəmaɪt] skdynamit

87. lawnmower [ˈlɔːnˌməʊə] skkosačka na trávu

88. microwave-safe [ˈmaɪkrəʊweɪv-seɪf] skvhodný do mikrovlnky

89. to enable [tuː ɪˈneɪbᵊl] skumožniť

90. to command [tuː kəˈmɑːnd] skprikázať

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