Mass Media

Maybe we can imagine our lives without newspapers and magazines, but it might be hard to imagine them without radio, television, and the Internet. 

MASS MEDIA are a source of information. We learn about the world around us, about important events, new technologies, and inventions. 

MASS MEDIA have several principal functions:

  • to inform
  • to educate
  • to entertain
  • to influence
  • to advertise

TELEVISION

ADVANTAGES

  • TV offers a wide choice of TV channels, so everyone can choose what they want to see
  • it broadcasts 24 hours a day
  • people can record a favourite TV programme and watch it later
  • it provides programmes for the general public and special programmes for little children, teenagers, adults, pensioners
  • people can stay at home and watch live programmes – music concerts, sporting events, live entertaining programmes which save time and money
  • TV brings entertainment and information

DANGER OF WATCHING TV

  • ADDICTION that can lead to physical and mental health problems. People can easily spend a lot of time watching TV, which can cause health issues such as eyesight damage, backache, and headache. Moreover, it can ruin your relationships, cause depression and insomnia.  
  • LESS SPORT – people do less sport and become lazy 
  • OVEREATING in front of the TV that can bring obesity
  • HOBBIES, READING – people quit with reading books and hobbies and become a couch potato
  • IDOLS – young people have their idols among the movie stars and singers who they see on the internet or TV. The famous stars have a massive influence on children, either in a good or bad way. It’s hard for a child to differentiate between what is fake and what is real.
  • COMMERCIALS have an impact mainly on older people. They buy anything they see on TV and spend a lot of money on useless things and junk. They can be easily deceived. You may sometimes feel like watching adverts, not the movie.
  • LACK OF COMMUNICATION among family members and friends
  • INNAPROPRIATE PROGRAMMES – many programmes are full of violence, blood, weapons, sex what can raise aggression in children. Parents must watch out for what their children watch. 

TV offers many different channels. Films originally made in a different language can have subtitles, or they are dubbed. In our country, people pay a monthly payment for state television. There are COMMERCIAL STATIONS such as TV Markíza, TV Joj, and A PUBLIC TELEVISION- Slovak televisionRTVS

POLITICAL NEWS (international or national news)
Most people follow the national and world news regularly to be well informed. In the case of catastrophes, such as earthquakes or terrorist attacks, many channels broadcast BREAKING NEWS (newly received information about an event that is currently occurring or developing, e.g., Breaking news: the missing child from York has been found safe and well.

DOCUMENTARIES
The primary purpose of a documentary is to inform and educate. It provides a factual report on a particular subject.

ECONOMIC NEWS

DISCUSSIONS about current affairs

INTERVIEWS with prominent people

SPORTS PROGRAMMES (life coverage or footage)

NATURE PROGRAMMES

TALKSHOWS

SOAP OPERAS ´SOAPS´ are romantic stories about people´s lives. They are often on TV every day. The stories are exciting, dramatic, and hard to believe.

SERIES (TV SHOWS) have many episodes, where the same characters are in various situations.

TV BEDTIME STORIES

CONCERTS

REALITY TV SHOWS

COMPETITIONS and QUIZZES

COMMERCIALS/ADVERTS – advertising through TV commercials has become one of the most effective ways of selling products of different kinds. It helps to finance TV channels, especially private ones.

PRESS/PRINT MEDIA

The printed media compete with electronic media. In spite of the fact, still, most people in our country buy a daily, a weekly or a monthly newspaper. They read it when having breakfast, at the bus stop, going by bus, train, or tram.

The newspapers can be divided into:

  • The quality newspapers = serious press = BROADSHEETS
  • The popular newspapers = TABLOIDS
  • LOCAL NEWSPAPERS
  • MAGAZINES

BROADSHEETS/THE QUALITY PRESS

  • Information here should be accurate, impartial, and reliable. 
  • Its size is quite large and therefore a little bit impractical. But, no worries, now you can find its online version on the internet.   
  • The front page of the quality paper offers the main political and economic news and there is always a leading article with a picture of the main event.
  • The following few pages contain home news, foreign news, current political events in the country, the main cultural events, economic news, and foreign news.
  • Other pages are devoted to TV guide, exhibitions, cartoons, competitions, crossword puzzles, sports events and results, and of course some advertisements.
  • If you have been to Britain, you indeed came across the most famous papers such as The Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian. 
  • Slovak’s popular papers are SME, Pravda, Hospodárske noviny. 

TABLOIDS/THE POPULAR PRESS

  • Tabloids try to attract readers with detailed crime stories, domestic sensations, misfortune, scandals, and gossiping about well-known people.
  • The headlines are more prominent (easily seen because they are larger), and articles are short, neither serious nor reliable. A lot of big pictures are there to catch our attention and buy it. Advertising is a MUST.
  • A tabloid has a smaller format than a quality paper.
  • The names of widely read British tabloids are The Mirror and The Sun.
  • The best selling Slovak dailies are Plus 1deň and Nový čas.

LOCAL PRESS

  • It is a paper of a particular region of the country that focuses on local interests. It informs what happened in the last week.
  • E.g. My Orava, Naša Orava, Oravsko

MAGAZINES

A magazine is issued regularly – weekly, fortnightly, monthly or quarterly and
contains articles, stories, photographs, and advertisements.

TYPES OF MAGAZINES:
Home and Garden Magazines, Entertainment and TV Magazines, Lifestyle Magazines,
Children’s Magazines, Computer and Electronics Magazines, Auto Magazines,
Business and Finance Magazines, Men’s Magazines, Women’s Magazines, Sports
Magazines, Teen Magazines, Travel and Places Magazines, Psychology Magazines,
Health and Fitness Magazines, Cooking and Food Magazines

DISADVANTAGES OF READING NEWSPAPERS

  • a lot of adverts
  • small print
  • it´s more expensive than the internet news
  • a little bit impractical because of its size

RADIO

In comparison to TV, radio has more advantages. Here are some examples of why people like listening to the radio: radio is portable – you can listen anywhere, radio is free, radio is adaptable – it is now accessible through laptops, computers, phones, and even smart speakers so you can listen to your favourite station whenever you want, however you want, radio is a companion – it provides us with the morning news, good music, engaging talks on different topics, and it’s our weather guide at the same time. You just choose your favourite radio station with your favourite speakers and music. 

We can divide the radio stations into two groups: 

  • State = non commercial: Slovensko, Devín, Regina
  • Private = commercial: Fun Radio, Radio Europa, Radio Expres

Apart from music, radio also informs about accidents on the roads, traffic jams, tailbacks, diversions, police radar.

INTERNET

  • The Internet (also called The Net) is a global wide area network that connects computer systems across the world.
  • The Net began for military reasons in 1969.
  • In the 1980s, people started calling it the “INTERNET.”
  • It has changed how we study, work, entertain or communicate with family, friends, business partners, and other people.
  • We do not depend on encyclopedias or dictionaries to find information. You can find everything that you need in a few seconds using Google. You just google it!

Internet has: informative function, educative function, entertaining function

Based on a recent survey of Internet traffic, here are the ten most popular uses of the internet: (in descending order of use – electronic mail – the most popular)

  1. Electronic mail
  2. Research
  3. Downloading files
  4. Discussion groups
  5. Interactive games
  6. Education and self-improvement
  7. Friendship and dating
  8. Electronic newspapers and magazines
  9. Job-hunting
  10. Shopping (much cheaper and more comfortable than in the stone shops) 

DISADVANTAGES OF THE INTERNET

  • unreliable information
  • computer viruses 
  • fake news = hoax (in America, they call it “onion”) 
  • a lot of spam mails
  • internet safety is being discussed – theft of personal information (your data can be easily misused)
  • social isolation – lack of communication among family members and friends because it prevents face-to-face communication
  • problems with mental and physical health – spending too much time on the net causes problems with eyesight, our spine and may cause depression and insomnia
  • developing the bad habit of eating in front of the PC
  • violence – growing cyberbullying
  • creating pseudo-idols who we think are better than we are and then we become insecure, and miserable

ADVANTAGES OF INTERNET

  • Fast and comfortable, immediate access to current information.
  • Distance learning through the time of a pandemic. 
  • Unlimited communication – constant contact with people via social networking sites Facebook, Instagram. 
  • It is TV, radio and newspapers in one.

Vocabulary

  1. provide [prəˈvaɪd] – poskytnúť  
  2. entertainment [ˌentəˈteɪnmənt] – zábava  
  3. entertain [ˌentəˈteɪn] – zabávať  
  4. commercial [kəˈmɜːʃəl] – reklama v TV  
  5. ad [æd] , advertisement [ədˈvɜːtɪsmənt or -tɪz-] , advertising [ˈædvəˌtaɪzɪŋ] – reklama  
  6. dubbed [ˈdʌbd] – dabovaný  
  7. subtitles [ˈsʌbˌtaɪtəls] – titulky  
  8. breaking news [ˈbreɪkɪŋ  njuːz] – mimoriadne správy  
  9. podcast – internet.forma rádio vysielania  
  10. watchable [wɒtʃ ˈeɪbəl]  – na čo sa dá pozerať (pozerateľný)  
  11. home/domestic news [dəˈmestɪk njuːz] – domáce správy  
  12. foreign/international news [ˈfɒrɪn /  ɪntəˈnæʃənəl  njuːz] – zahraničné správy  
  13. announcer [əˈnaʊnsə] – hlásateľ v TV,rozhlase  
  14. presenter [prɪˈzentə] – moderátor  
  15. broadcast [ˈbrɔːdˌkɑːst] – vysielať, vysielanie  
  16. remote control [rɪˈməʊt kənˈtrəʊl] – diaľkové ovládanie  
  17. well-informed [wel  ɪnˈfɔːmd] – dobre informovaný  
  18. couch potato [kaʊtʃ  pəˈteɪtəʊ] – televízny maniak  
  19. mouse potato [maʊs pəˈteɪtəʊ ] – PC maniak  
  20. tabloid [ˈtæblɔɪd] – bulvár  
  21. reliable  source [rɪˈlaɪəbəl  sɔːs] – spoľahlivý zdroj 
  22. viewer [ˈvjuːə] – televízny divák   
  23. spectator [spekˈteɪtə] – športový divák  
  24. audience [ˈɔːdɪəns] – obecenstvo, diváci v divadle  
  25. eyesight [ˈaɪˌsaɪt] – zrak
  26. post [pəʊst] – uverejniť, pridať
camera
  1. broadsheets [ˈbrɔːdˌʃiːt] – seriózna tlač
  2. local newspapers [ˈləʊkəl  ˈnjuːzˌpeɪpə] – miestne noviny
  3. article [ˈɑːtɪkəl]  článok
  4. influential [ˌɪnflʊˈenʃəl] – vplyvný
  5. report [rɪˈpɔːt] – správa
  6. stay in touch [steɪ in tʌtʃ ] – zostať v kontakte
  7. abroad [əˈbrɔːd]  cudzina, v cudzine, do cudziny
  8. efficient [ɪˈfɪʃənt] – účinný , efektívny
  9. appear [əˈpɪə] –  zjaviť sa , objaviť sa
  10. newsagent [ˈnjuːzˌeɪdʒənt] – novinový stánok
  11. Internet addiction [əˈdɪkʃən] – závislosť na nete
  12. influence [ˈɪnflʊəns] – vplyv, ovplyvniť
  13. contain [kənˈteɪn] – obsahovať 
  14. documentary [ˌdɒkjʊˈmentərɪ or -trɪ] – dokumentárny film
  15. latest news [ˈleɪtɪst njuːz ] – najnovšie správy
  16. footage [ˈfʊtɪdʒ] – záznam (TV)
  17. live coverage [laɪˈkʌvərɪdʒ] – priamy prenos (TV) 
  18. TV guide [tiːˈviː  gaɪd] – prehľad TV programov
  19. publisher [ˈpʌblɪʃə] – vydavateľ 
  20. review [rɪˈvjuː] – kritika, recenzia
  21. sitcom [ˈsɪtˌkɒm] – situačná komédia
  22. soap opera [səʊp ˈɒpərə ] – telenovela
  23. channel surfing [ˈtʃænəl ] – prepínanie kanálov
  24. current affairs [ˈkʌrənt  əˈfeəs] – aktuálne udalosti 
  25. foreign affairs [ˈfɒrɪn əˈfeəs] – zahraničné udalosti 
mass media
  1. lack of [læk əv] – nedostatok… 
  2. series [ˈsɪəriːz or -rɪz] – televízny seriál 
  3. prime time [praɪm taɪm] – hlavný vysielací čas
  4. quiz show [kwɪz ʃəʊ ] – kvíz
  5. update [ʌpˈdeɪt] – aktualizovať 
  6. violence [ˈvaɪələns] – násilie 
  7. weather forecast [ˈweðə ˈfɔːˌkɑːst] – predpoveď počasia 
  8. access to [ˈækses] – prístup k… 
  9. live – stream [laɪv striːm] – živé vysielanie 
  10. biased [ˈbaɪəst] – neobjektívny 
  11. gift  voucher [gɪft ˈvaʊtʃə]  – darčeková poukážka
  12. weekly [ˈwiːklɪ] – týždenník
  13. monthly [ˈmʌnθlɪ] – mesačník
  14. daily [ˈdeɪlɪ] – denník 
  15. pick up a signal [pɪk ʌp  ˈsɪgnəl] – zachytiť signál 
  16. headlines [ˈhedˌlaɪns] – novinové titulky
  17. the headlines – stručný prehľad udalostí 
  18. record [ˈrekɔːd AmE ˈrekəd] – nahrať, nahrávka 
  19. gossip column [ˈgɒsɪp ˈkɒləm] – spoločenská rubrika
  20. gossiping – klebetenie
  21. dot – bodka v mail adrese 
  22. @ [æt] –  zavináč
  23. We are on the same wavelength. – Sme na rovnakej vlnovej dĺžke
  24. Theft of personal information. – Krádež osobných údajov. 
  25. I will keep you updated. – Budem Ťa  priebežne informovať. 
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