JOBS & EMPLOYMENT

Work (or our occupation) plays an important role in our life. People work because they want to earn money for their living.

THE LABOUR MARKET INCLUDES

  • employees  –  workers, people who are paid by an employer
  • employer – a person who employs/hires employees and pay for their work
  • self – employed person – a person who works for himself/herself
  • businessman/ businesswoman – a person who works in business, especially one who has a high position in a company 
Some people don’t work for many reasons, here belong:
 
  • the unemployed
  • the disabled (invalid)
  • the sick
  • the retired

There are many exciting jobs that we can mention, e.g.:

  • a doctor – look after ill people, prescribes medicine
  • a plumber – fixes dripping taps
  • a butcher – sells meat
  • a postman/ a post lady – delivers letters
  • a dentist  – pulls or drills our teeth 
  • a journalist  –  writes in newspapers 
  • a hairdresser – cuts our hair
  • a baker –  makes bread 
  • a waiter/ a waitress – looks after people in restaurants 
  • a nurse – takes our blood pressure, checks our urine, take blood
  • a pilot  –  flies planes 
  • an accountant  –  does the accounts 
  • a shops assistant  –  helps customers in shops
  • a lifeguard – looks after people in a swimming pool
  • a cook/ a chef – prepares meals in restaurants
  • a teacher – educates students. It´s a very responsible job. Teaching is a very time- consuming profession. Teachers always bring work home. They work at the weekends checking hundreds of papers, preparing various kinds of tests, planning the next lessons.
  • a security officer  – security work/job belongs to dangerous professions. The working environment is not safe. People drink alcohol, get out of control and get aggressive – it leads to fights. 

Traditionally, jobs have been divided into TWO TYPES according to the clothes that
people wore to their work: 1. blue-collar jobs – work in factories 2. white–collar jobs  –
work in offices

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MANUAL JOB AND OFFICE JOB

MANUAL JOB or BLUE COLLAR JOB job, e.g., a MECHANIC.

A mechanic works with his hands. He should be physically strong because it’s usually hard
work. He doesn´t have to study at university. This job is generally skilled. Mechanics often
work shifts.

OFFICE JOB or WHITE COLLAR JOB, e.g., a SECRETARY.

Nowadays the name for this job is an ASSISTANT. It is often very dull and monotonous – each day the same, but sometimes very stressful. 

Assistant’s duties: answering the telephone, sitting at a computer, typing letters and reports, making phone calls, sending lots of e-mails, faxes, invoices, doing a lot of paperwork, making appointments for the boss, making reservations at restaurants. She makes polite conversations with guests and helps the boss with organising his time. 

Each secretary should have a positive image – a nice appearance, she must be kind, polite,
with friendly manner and speech. She creates a perfect impression. Assistants don’t work
shifts.

  • MANUAL JOB = PHYSICAL JOB – People who do this job work with their hands, especially in building industry (a construction worker, a painter, a housekeeper, a welder, a plumber, a firefighter, an electrician…).
  • OFFICE JOB = INTELECTUAL JOB – People who do this job work in office (an office manager, an office clerk, an insurance agent…).

JOBS ACCORDING TO QUALIFICATIONS

  • UNSKILLED JOB – anyone can do this job
  • SKILLED JOB – only people who are trained can do it
  • HIGHLY QUALIFIED JOB – if you get a university degree you can do this type of job 

These days a lot of people have to complete their education or retrain = re-educate

JOBS ACCORDING TO THE LENGTH OF TIME

STEADY JOB or PERMANENT JOB
 – a job for an unlimited length of time. We sign a permanent contract.
TEMPORARY JOB or SHORT-TERM JOB
– a contract for a limited time, here we sign a short-term contract. 
SEASONAL JOB or SUMMER JOB – typical is fruit picking

JOBS ACCORDING TO THE WORKING HOURS

  • PART-TIME JOB –  working only a part of the day or week
  • FULL-TIME JOB –  you work regular working hours

WORKING HOURS

You can work:

  • regular working hours – working at the same times each day
  • flexible working time – you can start work at different times
  • shift work – you work at different times, e.g., during the day one week, at night the following week. Working night shifts is very hard.

Shift work is typical for:


      • health workers (doctors, nurses)
      • protective services (police, firefighters)
      • transportation (pilots, bus drivers) 
      • security services (security guards)
  • do/work overtime – to work some extra hours to make more money

HOW TO LOOK FOR A JOB

People search for a job:

  • in advertisements on the Internet – www.profesia.sk
  • in local newspapers
  • in a job centre
  • employment agencies
  • our friends can help us

ESSENTIAL DOCUMENTS THAT WE NEED TO APPLY FOR A JOB

  • job application 
  • CV (curriculum vitae)
  • together with a motivation letter

CURRICULUM VITAE should include:

  1. personal details – name, surname, place of birth, date of birth, marital status address, contacts
  2. education + further training = qualification
  3. previous work experience 
  4. language skills
  5. other relevant abilities – computer skills, driving licence

HELPFUL ADVICE ON HOW TO PREPARE FOR A JOB INTERVIEW

  • Prepare for the interview well. Find some information about the company.
  • Put on smart and formal clothes. The first impression is very important. If you dress properly, you have a better chance to be successful.
  • Be on time, don’t be late. (= be punctual)
  • When you meet your interviewer, use a firm handshake, look into their eyes, and smile.
  • Answer clearly, stay calm. Be polite and friendly.
  • Choose your words carefully. Don’t use slang.
  • Be confident.
  • Don’t ask about starting salary. Wait until your interviewer mentions this question.

GOOD PERSONAL QUALITIES FOR GETTING A NEW JOB

  • I am hardworking, punctual, and responsible.
  • I can make quick decisions.
  • I am open-minded. 
  • I am willing to learn. 
  • I am flexible. I don´t have a problem working in a team or on my own.

SKILLS AND ABILITIES THAT MAY HELP YOU TO GET A NEW JOB

  • I speak foreign languages.
  • I have a driving license.
  • I understand world affairs, economy.
  • I use computer.
  • I can typewrite.
  • I have good communication skills. I´m good at dealing with people.
  • I am good at organizing things.
  • I am enthusiastic about a fresh challenge.
  • I don´t mind working overtime = some extra hours. 
  • I don´t mind working shifts.

WORK CONTRACT, INCOME & PAYDAY

If we are offered a job, we have to sign a work contract with our employer. The contract
includes: the job description, duties and responsibilities of the new employee, working
time, salary – money paid once a month on payday for doing the job. If you aren’t satisfied
with your job, you can hand in one’s notice = resign from the company. If the company isn’t satisfied with your work, you can get the sack/be sacked/be dismissed. Each occupation should bring us joy and satisfaction

income – the total amount of money we receive in a year
income tax – it is a part of our income given to the government

OTHER JOBS

a school caretaker, a cleaning lady/ cleaning woman = Mrs. Mop, a policeman/ a
policewoman, a priest, a librarian, a driver, a lawyer, an interpreter, a gardener, a cook, a
carpenter, a computer programmer = software engineer, a sales representative,
an electrician, a machine operator, a construction worker, a dustman, a dog food tester, a full
time Netflix viewer

Vocabulary

1. hairdresser [ˈheəˌdresə] – kaderníčka
2. barber [ˈbɑːbə] – holič
3. carpenter [ˈkɑːpɪntə] – tesár
4. bricklayer [ˈbrɪkˌleɪə] – murár
5. plumber [ˈplʌmə] – inštalatér
6. cleaner [ˈkliːnə] – upratovačka
7. mechanic [mɪˈkænɪk] – mechanik
8. lifeguard [ˈlaɪfˌgɑːd] – plavčík
9. baker [ˈbeɪkə] – pekár
10. postman [ˈpəʊstmən] – poštár
11. butcher [ˈbʊtʃə] – mäsiar
12. surgeon [ˈsɜːdʒən] – chirurg
13. politician [ˌpɒlɪˈtɪʃən] – politik
14. mayor [meə] – starosta, primátor
15. clerk [klɜːrk] / civil servant [ˈsɪv ə l ˈsɜːv ə nt ] / administrative staff [ədˈmɪnɪstrətɪv stɑːf ] – úradník
16. sales representative [seɪls ˌreprɪˈzentətɪv] – obchodný zástupca
17. lawyer [ˈlɔːjə] – právnik
18. programmer [ˈprəʊgræmə] – programátor
19. attorney [əˈtɜːnɪ] – advokát , právny zástupca
20. priest [priːst] – kňaz
21. paramedic [ˌpærəˈmedɪk] – záchranár
22. flight attendant [flaɪt əˈtendənt] – letuška, stevard
23. accountant [əˈtendənt] – účtovník
24. electrician [ɪlekˈtrɪʃən] – elektrikár
25. technician [tekˈnɪʃən] – technik
26. stockbroker [ˈstɒkˌbrəʊkə] – burzový maklér

hairdresser

27. machine operator [məˈʃiːn ˈɒpəˌreɪtə] – obsluhovač stroja
28. dustman [ˈdʌstmən] / refuse collector [rɪˈfjuːz kəˈlektə] – stavebný robotník
29. physical work [ˈfɪzɪk ə l wɜːk] / blue-collar job [bluː ˈkɒlə dʒɒb ] – fyzická práca, robotnícke povolanie
30. intellectual work [ˌɪntɪˈlektʃʊəl wɜːk] / white-collar job [waɪt ˈkɒlə dʒɒb] – duševná práca
31. well paid [wel peɪd] – dobre platený
32. badly paid [ˈbædlɪ peɪd] – zle platený
33. challenging job [ˈtʃælɪndʒɪŋ dʒɒb] / demanding job [dɪˈmɑːndɪŋ dʒɒb ] – náročná, ťažká práca
34. full-time job [fʊl taɪm dʒɒb] – práca na plný úväzok
35. part-time job [pɑːt taɪm dʒɒb] – práca na polovičný úväzok
36. permanent job [ˈpɜːmənənt dʒɒb] – stála práca (práca na dobu neurčitú)
37. temporary job [ˈtempərərɪ dʒɒb ] – dočasná práca (práca na dobu určitú)
38. fulfilling job [fʊl ˈfɪlɪŋ dʒɒb ] – napĺňajúca práca
39. responsible job [rɪˈspɒnsəb ə l dʒɒb ] – zodpovedná práca
40. Accounts [əˈkaʊnts] – účtáreň
41. Human Resources Department [ˈhjuːmən rɪˈzɔːs dɪˈpɑːtmənt] – osobné oddelenie
42. Public Relations Department [ˈpʌblɪk rɪˈleɪʃəns dɪˈpɑːtmənt ] – oddelenie pre styk s verejnosťou
43. Sales [seɪls] – oddelenie predaja
44. Information Technology Department [ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃən tekˈnɒlədʒɪ dɪˈpɑːtmənt] – IT oddelenie
45. Customer Service Deparment [ˈkʌstəmə ˈsɜːvɪs dɪˈpɑːtmənt ] – oddelenie zákazníckeho servisu
46. hire [ˈhaɪə] – prenajať
47. take on [teɪk on] – zamestnať
48. employ [ɪmˈplɔɪ] – zamestnať
49. employer [ɪmˈplɔɪə] – zamestnávateľ
50. employee [emˈplɔɪiː] – zamestnanec
51. (un) [ˌʌn] employed [ɪmˈplɔɪd] – (ne) zamestnaný
52. (un) employment [ɪmˈplɔɪmənt] – (ne) zamestnanosť

machine operator

53. be out of work [bi aʊt ɒv wɜːk] – nezamestnaný
54. be jobless [bi ˈdʒɒblɪs] – nezamestnaný
55. dismiss employees [dɪsˈmɪs emˈplɔɪiː] – prepustiť zamestnancov
56. be dismissed [bi dɪsˈmɪst] – byť prepustený
57. be made redundant [bi meɪd rɪˈdʌndənt] – byť prepustený
58. be sacked [bi sækt] – byť prepustený
59. get the sack [get ðə ] – dostať výpoveď
60. be fired [bi ˈfaɪəd] – byť vyhodený z práce
61. You are fired! – Máš vyhadzov!
62. quit [kwɪt] – skončiť (napr. v práci)
63. job hunting [dʒɒb ˈhʌntɪŋ ] / look for a job [lʊk fɔː ə dʒɒb ] – zháňať prácu
64. letter of resignation [ˈletə ɒv ˌrezɪgˈneɪʃən] – výpoveď od zamestnanca
65. layoff [ˈleɪˌɒf] – prepúšťanie
66. the dole [dəʊl] / unemployment benefit [ˌʌnɪmˈplɔɪmənt ˈbenɪfɪt ] – podpora v nezamestnanosti
67. be on the dole – byť na podpore
68. recruitment [rɪˈkruːtmənt] – nábor, prijímanie nových zamestnancov
69. recruiter [rɪˈkruːtə] – náborový pracovník
70. curriculum vitae (CV [ˌsiːviː]) [kəˈrɪkjʊləm vi: taɪ] – životopis
71. job application [dʒɒb ˌæplɪˈkeɪʃən] – žiadosť do zamestnania
72. references [ˈrefərənsəs ] – odporúčania
73. salary [ˈsælərɪ] – mesačný plat
74. wage [weɪdʒ] – mzda
75. hourly wage [ˈaʊəlɪ weɪdʒ ] – hodinová mzda
76. income [ˈɪnkʌm] – príjem
77. get a pay rise [get peɪ raɪz] – zvýšenie platu
78. sickness benefit [ˈsɪknɪs ˈbenɪfɪt] – nemocenská dávka

CV

79. sick leave [sɪk liːv] – práceneschopnosť
80. child benefit [tʃaɪld ˈbenɪfɪt ] – prídavky na deti
81. interest [ˈɪntrɪst] – úrok (v banke)
82. pension [ˈpenʃən] – dôchodok
83. savings [ˈseɪvɪŋ] – úspory
84. starting salary [stɑːtɪŋ ˈsælərɪ] – nástupný plat
85. be promoted [bi prəˈməʊtət] – byť povýšený
86. be in charge of [bi in tʃɑːdʒ] – mať na starosti / byť zodpovedný za
87. self-employed [self ɪmˈplɔɪd ] – živnostník
88. work freelance [wɜːk ˈfriːˌlɑːns] – byť na voľnej nohe
89. freelance journalist [ˈfriːˌlɑːns ˈdʒɜːn ə lɪst] – novinár na voľnej nohe
90. run my own business [rʌn maɪ əʊn ˈbɪznɪs] – podnikať
91. carry out duties [ˈkærɪ aʊt ˈdjuːtɪs] – plniť si povinnosti
92. cheap labour [tʃiːpˈleɪbə ] – lacná pracovná sila
93. cope with [kəʊp wɪð] – zvládnuť, poradiť si
94. flexible working hours – pružná pracovná doba
95. shift work [ʃɪft wɜːk] – práca na smeny
96. permanent contract [ˈpɜːmənənt ˈkɒntrækt] – zmluva na dobu neurčitú
97. temporary contract [ˈtempərərɪ ˈkɒntrækt] – zmluva na dobu určitú
98. seasonal job [ˈsiːzən ə l dʒɒb] – sezónna práca
99. summer job [ˈsʌmə dʒɒb] / holiday job [ˈhɒlɪˌdeɪ dʒɒb ] – letná brigáda
100. retrain [ˌriːˈtreɪn] – rekvalifikovať sa
101. take a day off – zobrať si deň voľna
102. job vacancy [dʒɒb ˈveɪkənsɪ ] – voľné pracovné miesto
103. work overtime [wɜːk ˈəʊvəˌtaɪm] – robiť nadčasy
104. commuting [kəˈmjuːtɪŋ] – dochádzanie

programmer

105. commuter [kəˈmjuːtə] – dochídzajúci, cezpoľný
106. skills [skɪls] – zručnosti
107. reliability [rɪˌlaɪəˈbɪlɪtɪ] – spoľahlivosť
108. flexibility [ˌfleksɪˈbɪlɪtɪ] – pružnosť
109. responsibility [rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪlɪtɪ] – zodpovednosť
110. experience [ɪkˈspɪərɪəns] – prax, skúsenosti
111. creativity [ˌkriːeɪˈtɪvɪtiː] – tvorivosť
112. patience [ˈpeɪʃəns] – trpezlivosť
113. communication skills [kəˌmjuːnɪˈkeɪʃən skɪls ] – komunikačné zručnosti
114. management skills [ˈmænɪdʒmənt skɪls ] – schopnosti riadiť, organizovať
115. driving skills [ˈdraɪvɪŋ skɪls] – vodičské zručnosti
116. follow the latest trends [ˈfɒləʊ ˈleɪtɪst trend ] – sledovaťnajnovšie trendy
117. after tax [ˈɑːftə tæks] – po zdanení
118. before tax [bɪˈfɔː tæks ] – pred zdanením
119. highly skilled [ˈhaɪlɪ skɪld] – vysoko kvalifikovaný
120. efficient [ɪˈfɪʃənt] – výkonný
121. meet deadline [miːt ˈdedˌlaɪn] – dodržať termín
122. goal-orientaded [gəʊl ˈɔːrɪəntɪd ] – cieľavedomý
123. turn down [tɜːn daʊn] – odmietnúť ponuku
124. set up a company [set ʌp ˈkʌmpənɪ] – založiť spoločnosť
125. found a company [faʊnd ˈkʌmpənɪ ] – založiť spoločnosť
126. establish company [ɪˈstæblɪʃ ˈkʌmpənɪ] – založiť spoločnosť
127. take on [teɪk ɒn] – zamestnať
128. temporary job [ˈtempərərɪ dʒɒb] – brigáda
129. labour market [ˈleɪbə ˈmɑːkɪt] – pracovný trh
130. bring out [brɪŋ aʊt] – uviesť na trh

baker

Oral Exam

Written Exam

Exam Info & Tips

Blog

Steve Jobs

STEVE JOBS

February 12, 2021

Word of the Day

Previous
Next

What is it?

Previous
Next

Vocabulary Quizzes

Previous
Next

English Idioms & Phrasal Verbs

Previous
Next