JOBS & EMPLOYMENT

Work (or our occupation) plays an important role in our life. People work because they want to earn money for their living.

THE LABOUR MARKET

The labour market includes:

  • employees  –  workers, people who are paid by an employer
  • employer – a person who employs/hires employees and pay for their work
  • self – employed person – a person who works for himself/herself
  • businessman/ businesswoman – a person who works in business, especially one who has a high position in a company 
Some people don’t work for many reasons:
 
  • the unemployed
  • the disabled 
  • the sick
  • the retired

There are many exciting jobs that we can mention:

  • a doctor – looks after ill people, prescribes medicine
  • a butcher – sells meat
  • a dentist  – pulls or drills our teeth 
  • a plumber – fixes dripping taps
  • a post lady/postman – delivers letters
  • a journalist  –  writes for newspapers 
  • a baker –  makes bread
  • a pilot  –  flies planes
  • an accountant  –  does the accounts 
  • a hairdresser – cuts our hair
  • a waiter/ a waitress/ a server – looks after people in restaurants 
  • a nurse – takes our blood pressure, checks our urine, takes blood
  • a teacher – a teacher educates students. It´s a very responsible job. Teaching is a very time-consuming profession. Teachers always bring work home. They work on the weekends checking hundreds of papers, preparing various kinds of tests, and planning the next lesson.
  • a security officer  – security work/job belongs to dangerous professions. The working environment is not safe. People drink alcohol, get out of/lose control and get aggressive – this may lead to fights. 
  • a lifeguard  – a lifeguard looks after people in a swimming pool/beach.
  • a cook/ a chef  – he/she prepares meals in a restaurant.
  • a shop assistant  – he/she helps customers in shops.

 

BLUE-COLLAR JOBS & WHITE-COLLAR JOBS

Traditionally, jobs have been divided into TWO TYPES according to the clothes that people wear to work:

A BLUE-COLLAR JOB

A MANUAL JOB = A PHYSICAL JOB – People who do this job, work with their hands, especially in the building industry (a construction worker, a painter/decorator, a housekeeper, a welder, a plumber, a firefighter, an electrician…).

A WHITE-COLLAR JOB

AN OFFICE JOB = AN INTELECTUAL JOB – People who do this job, work in an office (an office manager, an office clerk, an insurance agent…).

 

A MANUAL JOB or BLUE COLLAR JOB, e.g., a MECHANIC.

A mechanic works with his hands. They should be physically strong because it’s usually hard work. They don‘t have to study at university. This job is skilled. Mechanics often work shifts.

 

AN OFFICE JOB or WHITE COLLAR JOB, e.g., a SECRETARY.

Nowadays the name for this job is an ASSISTANT. It is often very dull and monotonous – each day is the same, but sometimes very stressful. 

An assistant’s duties: answering the telephone, sitting at a computer, typing letters and reports, making phone calls, sending lots of e-mails, faxes, invoices, doing a lot of paperwork, making appointments for the boss, making reservations at restaurants. They make polite conversations with guests and help the boss with organising his/her time. 

Each secretary should have a positive image – a nice appearance, they must be kind, polite, with friendly manner and speech. They create a perfect impression. Assistants don’t usually work shifts.

 

QUESTION TIME
part 1

  1. Who is an employer, an employee, a self-employed person, a businessman?
  2. Give reasons why some people don‘t work.
  3. Can you name at least 10 jobs in English? Which jobs are typically done by
    men/women in Slovakia?
  4. What‘s the difference between ´a blue-collar job´ and ´a white-collar job´?

BONUS QUESTION: What jobs are becoming more popular nowadays? Why? What jobs are losing their popularity? Why?

JOBS ACCORDING TO THE QUALIFICATIONS

  • AN UNSKILLED JOB – anyone may do this job (a cleaner)
  • A SKILLED JOB – only people who are trained may do it (an electrician)
  • A HIGHLY QUALIFIED JOB – if you get a university degree you can do this type of job (a pilot)

These days many people have to complete their education or retrain = re-educate to
keep their current job.

 

JOBS ACCORDING TO THE LENGTH OF TIME

  • A STEADY JOB or A PERMANENT JOB – A job for an unlimited length of time. Here we sign a permanent contract.
  • A TEMPORARY or SHORT-TERM JOB – A contract for a limited time, here we sign a short-term contract (e.g., maternity leave replacement).
  • A SEASONAL JOB or SUMMER JOB  – Typical here are things like fruit picking.

 

JOBS ACCORDING TO THE WORKING HOURS

  • A PART-TIME JOB –  working only a part of the day or week
  • A FULL-TIME JOB –  you work regular working hours

 

WORKING HOURS

You can work:

  • regular working hours – working at the same times each day
  • flexible working hours – you can start work at different times
  • shift work – you work at different times, e.g., during the day one week, then at night the following week. Working night shifts is very hard.

SHIFT WORK is typical for health workers (doctors, nurses), protective services (police, firefighters), transportation (pilots, bus drivers), and security services (security guards).

 

TO DO/WORK OVERTIME 

To work some extra hours to make more money.

 

QUESTION TIME
part 2

  1. How do we divide jobs according to the qualifications?
  2. How do we divide jobs according to the length of time?
  3. How do we divide jobs according to the working hours?
  4. What does ´working shifts´mean? What jobs require shift work?
  5. What does ´working overtime´mean?

BONUS QUESTION: Which jobs do you think are the best/worst paid jobs in your country? Why?

Jobs & Employment part II

WHERE TO LOOK FOR A JOB?

  1. in advertisements on the Internet
  2. through friends
  3. employment agencies
  4. in a job centre
  5. in local newspapers

 

ESSENTIAL DOCUMENTS THAT WE NEED TO APPLY FOR A JOB

  • a job application
  • a motivation letter
  • a curriculum vitae (CV)

CV should include:

  1. Personal details (name, surname, place of birth, date of birth, marital status, address, contacts)
  2. Education
  3. Additional training = qualifications
  4. Previous work experience 
  5. Language skills
  6. Other relevant abilities
    (computer skills, driving licence)

 

HELPFUL ADVICE ON HOW TO PREPARE FOR A JOB INTERVIEW

  1. Prepare for the interview well. Find some information about the organisation or company.
  2. Put on smart and formal clothes. The first impression is very important. If we dress properly, we have a better chance of success.
  3. Be on time, don’t be
  4. When you meet your interviewer, use a firm handshake, look into their eyes, and smile. A smiling face is a welcoming face. :))
  5. Be confident.
  6. Be polite and friendly.
  7. Answer clearly, stay calm.
  8. Don’t ask about starting salary. Wait until your interviewer mentions this question.
  9. Don‘t use slang.

 

GOOD PERSONAL QUALITIES FOR GETTING A JOB

  • I am hardworking, punctual, and responsible.
  • I can make quick decisions.
  • I am open-minded. 
  • I am willing to learn. 
  • I am flexible. I don´t have a problem working in a team or on my own.

 

SKILLS AND ABILITIES THAT MAY HELP YOU TO GET A NEW JOB

  • I speak foreign languages.
  • I have a driving license.
  • I understand world affairs or the economy.
  • I use a computer.
  • I can typewrite.
  • I‘m a great communicator. I´m good at dealing with people.
  • I am good at organizing things.
  • I am enthusiastic about a fresh challenge.
  • I don´t mind working overtime. 
  • I don´t mind working shifts.

 

WORK CONTRACT, INCOME & PAYDAY

  • If we are offered a job, we have to sign a work contract with our employer.
  • The contract includes the job description, duties, and responsibilities of the new employee, working time, and salary – money paid once a month on payday for doing the job.
  • If you aren’t satisfied with your job, you can hand in your notice = resign from the company.
  • If the company isn’t satisfied with your work, you can get the sack/be sacked/be dismissed.
  • Each occupation should bring us joy and satisfaction. 

income – this is the total amount of money we receive in a year
income tax – is a part of our income given to the government

 

OTHER JOBS

a dog food taster, a dustman, a priest, a full-time Netflix viewer, a librarian, a computer programmer =software engineer

 

QUESTION TIME
part 3

  1. Where to look for a job?
  2. Which essential documents do we need when applying for a job?
  3. What should a good CV include?
  4. How do we get ready for a job interview? Give some useful tips.
  5. What is a work contract and what does it contain?
  6. What does it mean to ´hand in one‘s notice´?
  7. What does it mean to ´get the sack´?
  8. Define the word ´income´.

BONUS QUESTION: What kind of job would you like to get in the future? Why?

Keep up the good work!;)

Vocabulary

1. hairdresser [ˈheəˌdresə] – kaderníčka
2. barber [ˈbɑːbə] – holič
3. carpenter [ˈkɑːpɪntə] – tesár
4. bricklayer [ˈbrɪkˌleɪə] – murár
5. plumber [ˈplʌmə] – inštalatér
6. cleaner [ˈkliːnə] – upratovačka
7. mechanic [mɪˈkænɪk] – mechanik
8. lifeguard [ˈlaɪfˌgɑːd] – plavčík
9. baker [ˈbeɪkə] – pekár
10. postman [ˈpəʊstmən] – poštár
11. butcher [ˈbʊtʃə] – mäsiar
12. surgeon [ˈsɜːdʒən] – chirurg
13. politician [ˌpɒlɪˈtɪʃən] – politik
14. mayor [meə] – starosta, primátor
15. clerk [klɜːrk] / civil servant [ˈsɪv ə l ˈsɜːv ə nt ] / administrative staff [ədˈmɪnɪstrətɪv stɑːf ] – úradník
16. sales representative [seɪls ˌreprɪˈzentətɪv] – obchodný zástupca
17. lawyer [ˈlɔːjə] – právnik
18. programmer [ˈprəʊgræmə] – programátor
19. attorney [əˈtɜːnɪ] – advokát , právny zástupca
20. priest [priːst] – kňaz
21. paramedic [ˌpærəˈmedɪk] – záchranár
22. flight attendant [flaɪt əˈtendənt] – letuška, stevard
23. accountant [əˈtendənt] – účtovník
24. electrician [ɪlekˈtrɪʃən] – elektrikár
25. technician [tekˈnɪʃən] – technik
26. stockbroker [ˈstɒkˌbrəʊkə] – burzový maklér

hairdresser

27. machine operator [məˈʃiːn ˈɒpəˌreɪtə] – obsluhovač stroja
28. dustman [ˈdʌstmən] / refuse collector [rɪˈfjuːz kəˈlektə] – stavebný robotník
29. physical work [ˈfɪzɪk ə l wɜːk] / blue-collar job [bluː ˈkɒlə dʒɒb ] – fyzická práca, robotnícke povolanie
30. intellectual work [ˌɪntɪˈlektʃʊəl wɜːk] / white-collar job [waɪt ˈkɒlə dʒɒb] – duševná práca
31. well paid [wel peɪd] – dobre platený
32. badly paid [ˈbædlɪ peɪd] – zle platený
33. challenging job [ˈtʃælɪndʒɪŋ dʒɒb] / demanding job [dɪˈmɑːndɪŋ dʒɒb ] – náročná, ťažká práca
34. full-time job [fʊl taɪm dʒɒb] – práca na plný úväzok
35. part-time job [pɑːt taɪm dʒɒb] – práca na polovičný úväzok
36. permanent job [ˈpɜːmənənt dʒɒb] – stála práca (práca na dobu neurčitú)
37. temporary job [ˈtempərərɪ dʒɒb ] – dočasná práca (práca na dobu určitú)
38. fulfilling job [fʊl ˈfɪlɪŋ dʒɒb ] – napĺňajúca práca
39. responsible job [rɪˈspɒnsəb ə l dʒɒb ] – zodpovedná práca
40. Accounts [əˈkaʊnts] – účtáreň
41. Human Resources Department [ˈhjuːmən rɪˈzɔːs dɪˈpɑːtmənt] – osobné oddelenie
42. Public Relations Department [ˈpʌblɪk rɪˈleɪʃəns dɪˈpɑːtmənt ] – oddelenie pre styk s verejnosťou
43. Sales [seɪls] – oddelenie predaja
44. Information Technology Department [ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃən tekˈnɒlədʒɪ dɪˈpɑːtmənt] – IT oddelenie
45. Customer Service Deparment [ˈkʌstəmə ˈsɜːvɪs dɪˈpɑːtmənt ] – oddelenie zákazníckeho servisu
46. hire [ˈhaɪə] – prenajať
47. take on [teɪk on] – zamestnať
48. employ [ɪmˈplɔɪ] – zamestnať
49. employer [ɪmˈplɔɪə] – zamestnávateľ
50. employee [emˈplɔɪiː] – zamestnanec
51. (un) [ˌʌn] employed [ɪmˈplɔɪd] – (ne) zamestnaný
52. (un) employment [ɪmˈplɔɪmənt] – (ne) zamestnanosť

machine operator

53. be out of work [bi aʊt ɒv wɜːk] – nezamestnaný
54. be jobless [bi ˈdʒɒblɪs] – nezamestnaný
55. dismiss employees [dɪsˈmɪs emˈplɔɪiː] – prepustiť zamestnancov
56. be dismissed [bi dɪsˈmɪst] – byť prepustený
57. be made redundant [bi meɪd rɪˈdʌndənt] – byť prepustený
58. be sacked [bi sækt] – byť prepustený
59. get the sack [get ðə ] – dostať výpoveď
60. be fired [bi ˈfaɪəd] – byť vyhodený z práce
61. You are fired! – Máš vyhadzov!
62. quit [kwɪt] – skončiť (napr. v práci)
63. job hunting [dʒɒb ˈhʌntɪŋ ] / look for a job [lʊk fɔː ə dʒɒb ] – zháňať prácu
64. letter of resignation [ˈletə ɒv ˌrezɪgˈneɪʃən] – výpoveď od zamestnanca
65. layoff [ˈleɪˌɒf] – prepúšťanie
66. the dole [dəʊl] / unemployment benefit [ˌʌnɪmˈplɔɪmənt ˈbenɪfɪt ] – podpora v nezamestnanosti
67. be on the dole – byť na podpore
68. recruitment [rɪˈkruːtmənt] – nábor, prijímanie nových zamestnancov
69. recruiter [rɪˈkruːtə] – náborový pracovník
70. curriculum vitae (CV [ˌsiːviː]) [kəˈrɪkjʊləm vi: taɪ] – životopis
71. job application [dʒɒb ˌæplɪˈkeɪʃən] – žiadosť do zamestnania
72. references [ˈrefərənsəs ] – odporúčania
73. salary [ˈsælərɪ] – mesačný plat
74. wage [weɪdʒ] – mzda
75. hourly wage [ˈaʊəlɪ weɪdʒ ] – hodinová mzda
76. income [ˈɪnkʌm] – príjem
77. get a pay rise [get peɪ raɪz] – zvýšenie platu
78. sickness benefit [ˈsɪknɪs ˈbenɪfɪt] – nemocenská dávka

CV

79. sick leave [sɪk liːv] – práceneschopnosť
80. child benefit [tʃaɪld ˈbenɪfɪt ] – prídavky na deti
81. interest [ˈɪntrɪst] – úrok (v banke)
82. pension [ˈpenʃən] – dôchodok
83. savings [ˈseɪvɪŋ] – úspory
84. starting salary [stɑːtɪŋ ˈsælərɪ] – nástupný plat
85. be promoted [bi prəˈməʊtət] – byť povýšený
86. be in charge of [bi in tʃɑːdʒ] – mať na starosti / byť zodpovedný za
87. self-employed [self ɪmˈplɔɪd ] – živnostník
88. work freelance [wɜːk ˈfriːˌlɑːns] – byť na voľnej nohe
89. freelance journalist [ˈfriːˌlɑːns ˈdʒɜːn ə lɪst] – novinár na voľnej nohe
90. run my own business [rʌn maɪ əʊn ˈbɪznɪs] – podnikať
91. carry out duties [ˈkærɪ aʊt ˈdjuːtɪs] – plniť si povinnosti
92. cheap labour [tʃiːpˈleɪbə ] – lacná pracovná sila
93. cope with [kəʊp wɪð] – zvládnuť, poradiť si
94. flexible working hours – pružná pracovná doba
95. shift work [ʃɪft wɜːk] – práca na smeny
96. permanent contract [ˈpɜːmənənt ˈkɒntrækt] – zmluva na dobu neurčitú
97. temporary contract [ˈtempərərɪ ˈkɒntrækt] – zmluva na dobu určitú
98. seasonal job [ˈsiːzən ə l dʒɒb] – sezónna práca
99. summer job [ˈsʌmə dʒɒb] / holiday job [ˈhɒlɪˌdeɪ dʒɒb ] – letná brigáda
100. retrain [ˌriːˈtreɪn] – rekvalifikovať sa
101. take a day off – zobrať si deň voľna
102. job vacancy [dʒɒb ˈveɪkənsɪ ] – voľné pracovné miesto
103. work overtime [wɜːk ˈəʊvəˌtaɪm] – robiť nadčasy
104. commuting [kəˈmjuːtɪŋ] – dochádzanie

programmer

105. commuter [kəˈmjuːtə] – dochídzajúci, cezpoľný
106. skills [skɪls] – zručnosti
107. reliability [rɪˌlaɪəˈbɪlɪtɪ] – spoľahlivosť
108. flexibility [ˌfleksɪˈbɪlɪtɪ] – pružnosť
109. responsibility [rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪlɪtɪ] – zodpovednosť
110. experience [ɪkˈspɪərɪəns] – prax, skúsenosti
111. creativity [ˌkriːeɪˈtɪvɪtiː] – tvorivosť
112. patience [ˈpeɪʃəns] – trpezlivosť
113. communication skills [kəˌmjuːnɪˈkeɪʃən skɪls ] – komunikačné zručnosti
114. management skills [ˈmænɪdʒmənt skɪls ] – schopnosti riadiť, organizovať
115. driving skills [ˈdraɪvɪŋ skɪls] – vodičské zručnosti
116. follow the latest trends [ˈfɒləʊ ˈleɪtɪst trend ] – sledovaťnajnovšie trendy
117. after tax [ˈɑːftə tæks] – po zdanení
118. before tax [bɪˈfɔː tæks ] – pred zdanením
119. highly skilled [ˈhaɪlɪ skɪld] – vysoko kvalifikovaný
120. efficient [ɪˈfɪʃənt] – výkonný
121. meet deadline [miːt ˈdedˌlaɪn] – dodržať termín
122. goal-orientaded [gəʊl ˈɔːrɪəntɪd ] – cieľavedomý
123. turn down [tɜːn daʊn] – odmietnúť ponuku
124. set up a company [set ʌp ˈkʌmpənɪ] – založiť spoločnosť
125. found a company [faʊnd ˈkʌmpənɪ ] – založiť spoločnosť
126. establish company [ɪˈstæblɪʃ ˈkʌmpənɪ] – založiť spoločnosť
127. take on [teɪk ɒn] – zamestnať
128. temporary job [ˈtempərərɪ dʒɒb] – brigáda
129. labour market [ˈleɪbə ˈmɑːkɪt] – pracovný trh
130. bring out [brɪŋ aʊt] – uviesť na trh

baker