Health Care & Human Body

Good health means a longer and happier life. Health, together with love, is the most precious gift that people have.

How to prevent illnesses/diseases.

To stay fit and keep our mind and body in good balance, we should:

  • Eat Healthy Foods: Choose foods that are good for your health and provide essential nutrients.
  • Stay Active: Take part in different sports or activities. Avoid spending too much time sitting in front of screens like the TV, computer, phone, or playing video games.
  • Handle Stress: Try to avoid situations that make you feel worried or stressed. Stay away from alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs.
  • Get Outside: Spend time in the fresh air and move around regularly.
  • Sleep Well: Make sure you have a regular sleep routine and get enough rest.
  • Stay Positive: Try to see things in a hopeful and optimistic way. Cultivate a positive outlook on life.

Everyone in our country has the right to choose a doctor. Medical care is provided for our
citizens from birth to death.

Children’s Diseases

After birth, each child is vaccinated against:

Tuberculosis (TB)

  • Whooping cough
  • Measles
  • Polio
  • Chickenpox (smallpox)
  • Mumps

Each schoolchild is under medical supervision, which means they have to undergo a series
of preventive medical and dental check-ups, during which:

  • Their body is examined.
  • Their teeth are checked.
  • Their eyesight is tested.


  1. Why should people take care of their health?
  2. What rules should we follow to stay in good shape?
  3. Which diseases can affect small children?

Most often, we suffer from common infections like:

  • Cold and sore throat – our nose is running or it is blocked. We sneeze and cough a lot.
  • Tonsillitis – our glands are swollen and we cannot swallow.
  • Flu – we have achy joints, high temperature, headache, and physical fatigue.
  • Chest infection – we have difficulty breathing.

Common infections are very contagious. We try to recover from them on our own. We:

  • Stay in bed,
  • take pills, drops, and vitamins,
  • keep warm,
  • sweat,
  • drink herbal tea with honey or lemon,
  • the best thing is to get total bed rest.

After a couple of days, we should feel better again. But if we still feel unwell, we finally decide
to see our local doctor, who is called a General Practitioner (GP).


  1. Can you list any common infections and their symptoms?
  2. Give some tips on how to recover from common infections without seeing a doctor.
  3. What is another term for a local doctor?

At the doctor’s office (At the doctor’s)

We have to wait in the waiting room until the nurse calls us into the examination room.

The nurse has to locate our medical record and asks to see our insurance card. Her other
duties include:

  • taking the temperature
  • checking the blood pressure
  • taking/drawing blood
  • testing the urine

After all, we are ready to enter the examination room/doctor’s office/surgery. The doctor
usually asks us how we feel, what problems we are having, or what’s bothering us. If we have a headache, a sore throat, a cold, or a cough, we need to mention it. Then the doctor examines us. He:

  1. Listens to our lungs and heart.
  2. Asks us to take a deep breath or hold our breath according to his instructions.
  3. Makes a diagnosis.
  4. Writes a prescription for us.
  5. Schedules the next check-up.

Then we go to the drugstore (AmE) / chemist’s (BrE) where we can get:

  • Antibiotics, gargle, cough syrup, vitamins, ointments, nose drops, and painkillers.
  • We need to take medicine according to the doctor’s advice, and for a short time, we may be unable to attend school or work.
  • Every household should have a first-aid kit. It should contain: a clinical thermometer, cotton balls, bandages, adhesive bandages (plasters), scissors, and some pain relievers.


  1. When do you go to see a doctor?
  2. What questions do doctors ask their patients?
  3. Describe what happens in a doctor’s surgery / office.
  4. What is the nurse´s job?
  5. What medicine can we take at the pharmacy / at the chemist’s / drugstore?
  6. What items does a first aid kit contain?

More serious illnesses

Sometimes the situation may be more serious and requires special treatment in a hospital.
Here are some serious illnesses that require special treatment:

  • heart attack, pneumonia, jaundice, stroke, concussion, blood poisoning, insomnia, salmonellosis, appendicitis, breaking an arm or a leg

In the hospital, injured people are examined and X-rayed. Very serious cases are immediately operated on in the operating room (AmE) / the operating theatre (BrE).
Doctors who work in hospitals are usually referred to as specialists, for example:

  • surgeons, psychiatrists, internists, ophthalmologists, gynecologists, dermatologists, pediatricians

Illnesses of civilization

Many people suffer from:

  • pollen allergies, food allergies, diabetes, obesity, cancer.
  • Cancer is one of the biggest threats nowadays. Every year, more and more people of all
    ages are diagnosed with tumors of all types.
  • Daffodil Day is a public collection organized to raise money to provide support for people
    with cancer and their families.


  1. Which diseases do you think are the most serious?
  2. Why? Can you name any medical specialists in English?
  3. Have you ever had to go to the hospital? If so, what for?
  4. How long did you stay there?
  5. Which illnesses related to modern lifestyles can people suffer from?
    (Illnesses of civilization)
  6. What is Daffodil Day?

Civilization Diseases and Epidemics

The latest global threat is the COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic. It was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. While most people who
recover from COVID-19 experience mild symptoms, it can also lead to severe illness and
even death. The virus primarily spreads when an infected person is in close contact with
another person.

Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable: fever, cough, fatigue, breathing difficulties, loss of
smell and taste.

Preventive measures include: physical or social distancing, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, handwashing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face, the use of face masks in public.

Internal Organs of the Human Body

Heart, lungs, liver, stomach, kidneys, brain, small intestine, large intestine (colon),
gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, bladder, etc.

Parts of the Human Body

head, hair, forehead, eyebrows, eyes, nose, cheeks, ears, mouth, lips, teeth, tongue, chin,
neck, shoulders, arms, elbows, wrists, hands, fingers, chest, breast, abdomen, navel (belly
button), hips, thighs, knees, legs, ankles, feet, toes

Fingers: thumb, index finger, middle finger, ring finger, pinky finger

At the Doctor’s

  • Questions Asked by Doctors and Nurses
    What problems are you having? / What's wrong with you?/ What´s bothering you?
  • Did you vomit?
  • Breathe deeply / Breathe quietly / Stop breathing. / Breathe in. / Breathe out.
  • Do you have an insurance card?
  • Do you have high blood pressure?
  • Do you have any pre-existing conditions?
  • Where does it hurt?
  • Is it painful?
  • Do you have breathing difficulties?
  • The next check-up will be in 5 days.
  • It is not serious.
  • Did you have a fever?
  • Are you allergic to anything?
  • I will write you a prescription.
  • You will be taking the pills three times a day.
  • Are you currently taking any medication?
  • You need complete bed rest for a week.
  • You will be admitted to the hospital.
  • I will write you a prescription.


  1. Name some symptoms of COVID-19.
  2. What preventive measures should we follow to protect ourselves from the
  3. Name some internal organs of the body.
  4. Can you mention any parts of the human body? Let’s start from the head.
  5. What phrases or questions might we hear at the doctor’s?


1. illness [ˈɪlnɪs] / disease [dɪˈziːz] / sickness [ˈsɪknɪs] skchoroba

2. healthy nutrition [ˈhɛlθi njuːˈtrɪʃᵊn] skzdravá výživa

3. avoid stress [əˈvɔɪd strɛs] skvyhýbať sa stretu

4. suffer from [ˈsʌfə frɒm] sktrpieť niečím

5. get over [ɡɛt ˈəʊvə] / overcome [ˌəʊvəˈkʌm] / go through [ɡəʊ θruː] skprekonať

6. waiting room [ˈweɪtɪŋ ruːm] skčakáreň

7. breathe deeply [briːð ˈdiːpli] skzhlboka sa nadýchnuť

8. to transmit [tuː trænzˈmɪt] / pass sth. on [pɑːs ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɒn] skprenášať / vírus

9. general practitioner [ˈʤɛnərəl prækˈtɪʃnə] / GP [ʤiː-piː] skobvodný lekár

10. paediatrician [ˌpiːdɪəˈtrɪʃən] skdetský lekár

11. surgeon [ˈsɜːʤən] skchirurg

12. dermatologist [ˌdɜːməˈtɒləʤɪst] skkožný lekár

13. internist [ɪnˈtɜːnɪst] skinternista

14. psychologist [saɪˈkɒləʤɪst] skpsychológ

15. dentist [ˈdɛntɪst] skzubár

16. cardiologist [ˌkɑːdɪˈɒləʤɪst] skkardiológ

17. drug addicted [drʌɡ əˈdɪktɪd] skdrogovo závislý

18. to undergo treatment [tuː ˌʌndəˈɡəʊ ˈtriːtmənt] skpodstúpiť liečbu

19. medical record [ˈmɛdɪkəl ˈrɛkɔːd] skzdravotná karta

20. to take blood [tuː teɪk blʌd] skzobrať krv

21. pollen allergy [ˈpɒlɪn ˈæləʤi] skpeľová alergia

22. infected person [ɪnˈfɛktɪd ˈpɜːsᵊn] sknakazená osoba

23. flu [fluː] / influenza [ˌɪnflʊˈɛnzə] skchrípka

24. check up [ʧɛk ʌp] skpreventívna prehliadka

25. eyesight [ˈaɪsaɪt] skzrak

26. to recover [tuː rɪˈkʌvə] skzotaviť sa, uzdraviť sa

27. first-aid kit [ˈfɜːsteɪd kɪt] sklekárnička

28. ointment [ˈɔɪntmənt] skmastička

29. thermometer [θəˈmɒmɪtə] skteplomer

30. adhesive plaster [ədˈhiːsɪv ˈplɑːstə] sknáplasť

Healt Care 1

31. drops [drɒps] skkvapky

32. bandage [ˈbændɪʤ] skobväz

33. painkiller [ˈpeɪnˌkɪlə] skliek od bolesti

34. cough syrup [kɒf ˈsɪrəp] sksirup od kašľa

35. insurance card [ɪnˈʃʊərəns kɑːd] skkartička poistenca

36. consulting room [kənˈsʌltɪŋ ruːm] skmiestnosť u sestričky

37. to ache [tuː eɪk] / to hurt [tuː hɜːt] skbolieť

38. damage [ˈdæmɪʤ] skpoškodenie, škoda

39. to check the blood pressure skskontrolovať krvný tlak

40. curable [ˈkjʊərəbᵊl] skliečiteľný

41. incurable [ɪnˈkjʊərəbᵊl] skneliečiteľný

42. to be in a good shape skbyť v dobrej forme

43. to be allergic to sth. skbyť alergický na niečo

44. a lack of physical activities sknedostatok pohybu

45. insufficient sleep [ˌɪnsəˈfɪʃənt sliːp] sknedostatok pohybu

46. sedentary work [ˈsɛdntəri wɜːk] sksedavé zamestnanie

47. overeating [ˌəʊvəˈriːtɪŋ] skprejedanie sa

48. to be caused by skbyť spôsobené

49. catching [ˈkæʧɪŋ] sknákazlivé, chytľavé

50. treatment [ˈtriːtmənt] / cure [kjʊə] skliečba

51. doctor´s surgery [ˈdɒktə´ɛs ˈsɜːʤəri] / doctor´s office [ˈdɒktə´ɛs ˈɒfɪs] skordinácia

52. arm [ɑːm] skruka (celá)

53. armpit [ˈɑːmpɪt] skpodpazušie

54. elbow [ˈɛlbəʊ] sklakeť

55. wrist [rɪst] skzápästie

56. palm [pɑːm] skdlaň

57. little finger [ˈlɪtl ˈfɪŋɡə] / pinkie [ˈpɪŋki] skmalíček

58. ring finger [rɪŋ ˈfɪŋɡə] skprsteník

59. middle finger [ˈmɪdl ˈfɪŋɡə] skprostredník

60. index finger [ˈɪndɛks ˈfɪŋɡə] skukazovák

61. thumb [θʌm] skpalec

Health Care 2

62. skin [skɪn] skkoža

63. eye [aɪ] skoko

64. eyebrow [ˈaɪbraʊ] skobočie

65. eyelashes [ˈaɪlæʃɪz] skmihalnice

66. eyelid [ˈaɪlɪd] skviečko

67. forehead [ˈfɔːhɛd] skčelo

68. jaw [ʤɔː] sksánka, spodná čeľusť

69. tongue [tʌŋ] skjazyk

70. teeth [tiːθ] skzuby

71. lips [lɪps] skpery

72. chin [ʧɪn] skbrada

73. cheeks [ʧiːks] sklíca

74. waist [weɪst] skpás

75. leg [lɛɡ] sknoha (celá)

76. foot [fʊt] skchodidlo

77. calf [kɑːf] sklýtko

78. thigh [θaɪ] skstehno

79. ankle [ˈæŋkl] skčlenok

80. knee [niː] skkoleno

81. toe [təʊ] skprst na nohe

82. neck [nɛk] skkrk

83. throat [θrəʊt] skhrdlo

84. internal organs [ɪnˈtɜːnl ˈɔːɡənz] skvnútorné orgány

85. lungs [lʌŋz] skpľúca

86. kidneys [ˈkɪdniz] skobličky

87. liver [ˈlɪvə] skpečeň

88. brain [breɪn] skmozog

89. heart [hɑːt] sksrdce

90. muscles [ˈmʌslz] sksvaly

91. back [bæk] skchrbát

92. breast [brɛst] / chest [ʧɛst] skhruď

93. hips [hɪps] skboky

Health Care 3

94. injuries [ˈɪnʤəriz] skzranenia

95. bruise [bruːz] skmodrina, pomliaždenina

96. blister [ˈblɪstə] skpľuzgier

97. swollen [ˈswəʊlən] skopuchnutý

98. twisted [ˈtwɪstɪd] / sprained [spreɪnd] skvyvrtnutý

99. bleeding [ˈbliːdɪŋ] skkrvácajúci

100. broken [ˈbrəʊkən] skzlomený

101. burn [bɜːn] skpopálenina

102. common illnesses [ˈkɒmən ˈɪlnɪsɪz] skbežné choroby

103. chest infection [ʧɛst ɪnˈfɛkʃᵊn] skzápal priedušiek

104. earache [ˈɪəreɪk] skbolesť uší

105. stomachache [ˈstʌməkeɪk] skbolesť brucha

106. backache [ˈbækeɪk] skbolesť chrbta

107. toothache [ˈtuːθeɪk] skbolesť zubov

108. serious diseases [ˈsɪərɪəs dɪˈziːzɪz] skvážne choroby

109. cancer [ˈkænsə] skrakovina

110. Parkinson´s disease [ˈpɑː.kɪn.sən´ɛs dɪˈziːz] skParkinsonova choroba

111. Parkinson´s disease [ˈæltsˌhaɪmə´ɛs dɪˈziːz] skAlzheimerova choroba

112. heart attack [hɑːt əˈtæk] skinfarkt

113. stroke [strəʊk] skmozgová príhoda

114. pneumonia [njuːˈməʊniə] skzápal pľúc

115. insomnia [ɪnˈsɒmnɪə] sknespavosť

116. blood poisoning [blʌd ˈpɔɪznɪŋ] skotrava krvi

117. jaundice [ˈʤɔːndɪs] skžltačka

118. hypertension [ˌhaɪpəˈtɛnʃᵊn] skvysoký krvný tlak

119. children´s diseases [ˈʧɪldrən´ɛs dɪˈziːzɪz] skdetské choroby

120. measles [ˈmiːzlz] skosýpky

121. polio [ˈpəʊlɪəʊ] skdetská obrna

122. smallpox [ˈsmɔːlpɒks] / chickenpox [ˈʧɪkɪnpɒks] skkiahne

123. whooping cough [ˈhuːpɪŋ kɒf] skčierny kašeľ

124. symptoms [ˈsɪmptəmz] skpríznaky

125. high temperature [haɪ ˈtɛmprɪʧə] skvysoká teplota

Health Care 4

126. sweating [ˈswɛtɪŋ] skpotenie sa

127. cough [kɒf] / coughing [ˈkɒfɪŋ] skkašeľ

128. to sneeze [tuː sniːz] skkýchať

129. sore throat [sɔː θrəʊt] skboľavé / zapálené hrdlo

130. aching joints [ˈeɪkɪŋ ʤɔɪnts] skboľavé kĺby

131. total bed rest [ˈtəʊtl bɛd rɛst] skúplný kľud

132. diarrhoea [ˌdaɪəˈrɪə] skhnačka

133. vomiting [ˈvɒmɪtɪŋ] skvracanie

134. running nose [ˈrʌnɪŋ nəʊz] sknádcha

135. blocked nose [blɒkt nəʊz] skupchatý nos

136. blow one´s nose [bləʊ wʌn´ɛs nəʊz] skvysmrkať sa

137. loss of smell [lɒs ɒv smɛl] skstrata čuchu

138. loss of taste [lɒs ɒv teɪst] skstrata chuti

139. constipation [ˌkɒnstɪˈpeɪʃᵊn] skzápacha

140. nausea [ˈnɔːziə] skžalúdočná nevoľnosť

141. spots [spɒts] skvyrážky, fľaky, škvrny

142. high [haɪ] / low blood pressure [ləʊ blʌd ˈprɛʃə] skvysoký / nízky tlak

143. face mask [feɪs mɑːsk] skrúško

144. keep social distance skdodržiavať odstup

145. fatigue [fəˈtiːɡ] / tiredness [ˈtaɪədnəs] skúnava, vyčerpanosť

146. breathing difficulties [ˈbriːðɪŋ ˈdɪfɪkəltiz] skdýchacie ťažkosti

147. take temperature [teɪk ˈtɛmprɪʧə] skodmerať teplotu

148. take antibiotics [teɪk ˌæntɪbaɪˈɒtɪks] skužívať antibiotiká

149. to examine a patient skvyšetriť pacienta

150. to listen to one´s heartbeat skpočúvať srdce

151. to listen to one´s breathing skpočúvať dýchanie

152. to operate [tuː ˈɒpəreɪt] skoperovať

153. to prescribe some medicine skpredpísať lieky

154. ward [wɔːd] skoddelenie v nemocnici

155. instead of [ɪnˈstɛd ɒv] sknamiesto niečoho

156. side effects [saɪd ɪˈfɛkts] skvedľajšie účinky

157. to overdose [tuː ˌəʊvəˈdəʊs] skpredávkovať sa

158. prescription [prɪsˈkrɪpʃᵊn] sklekársky recept

159. hectic life [ˈhɛktɪk laɪf] skhektický život

160. under the supervision of skpod kontrolou, dohľadom

161. preventive check-ups skpreventívne prehliadky

Health Care 5
Share this with your friends👉