Culture & Arts

What is the role of culture and art in modern society?

  • To cherish customs and traditions
  • To entertain and educate
  • To enrich our minds
  • To give the impression and emotions = please the senses
  • To develop and promote national heritage
  • To spend free time in a good way

TYPES OF ARTS

1. DECORATIVE ARTS

  • the production of objects with your hands that are beautiful and useful

           PAINTING    SCULPTURE    ARCHITECTURE    PHOTOGRAPHY

PAINTING

We can admire a picture showing:

  • natural scenery/landscape
  • still life – a picture showing e.g., vase and some apples
  • self-portrait – a portrait of the artist himself/herself
  • nude – a picture of a naked person
  • a painter uses – brushes, paints, canvas, palette, and easel

Visitors of galleries, museums, and other exhibitions must respect some rules.
We aren’t allowed:
X drop litter on the floor
X smoke
X take photos
X touch paintings
X make noise

WORLD FAMOUS PAINTERS
Their paintings are precious (priceless).

Pablo Picasso was a Spanish artist. He is probably best known for his cubist style. He used
triangles and squares to make his portraits.
Vincent Van Gogh was a Dutch painter. During his life, he didn’t sell even one of his paintings and became famous after his death. He was mentally ill, and he tried to commit suicide. He also cut off his ear as a protest because of his unfortunate love for his cousin.
Leonardo Da Vinci was an Italian painter famous for his paintings such as Mona Lisa with her mysterious smile, or the picture: The Last Supper.

SLOVAK PAINTERS

Martin Benka
Mária Medvecká was a famous Orava painter who painted beauties of the Orava region,
people at work and their hard life. Mária Medvecká used dark colours such as grey, brown,
green. Her gallery is in a district town, Tvrdošín.

SCULPTURE

Here belong statues from stone, marble, metal, clay, wood, glass, ice.
Heroic statues: (sochy v nadživotnej veľkosti)
The Statue of Liberty in New York, the USA
Christ The Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Mount Rushmore in the USA
Great Sphinx of Giza in Cairo, Egypt

ARCHITECTURE

Here belong interiors and exteriors of castles, palaces, gardens, and open-air museums.
Egyptian Pyramids
Great Wall of China
Palace of Versailles in France
Eiffel Tower, France
Orava Castle, Slovakia
Wooden Roman Catholic Church in Tvrdošín, Slovakia

PHOTOGRAPHY

View from the Window at Le Gras (1826) – the first photograph ever taken
Lunch Atop a Skyscraper (1932)

2. PERFORMING ARTS

  • an activity that is performed in front of the audience

          MUSIC    DANCE    LITERATURE    THEATRE    FILM

MUSIC

Popular music genres:
classical music, blues, country, jazz, rock, reggae, electronic music, R&B, hip-hop, punk, etc.
Musical instruments:
recorder, trumpet, guitar, piano, violin, flute, accordion, saxophone, drums, contrabass,
bagpipes

CLASSICAL MUSIC

Classical music is written by a composer and performed by an orchestra. The orchestra has a conductor – a person at the front who directs the musicians
The majority of people are laymen in classical music because they aren‘t interested in it.

Still, some tunes are very catchy, so that people usually choose this kind of music when
relaxing or studying. It is said that classical music boosts your memory, fights against
depression, puts you to sleep, reduces stress level, and last but not least, it makes you
happy.
Among the most famous world, composers belong:
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Ludwig Van Beethoven
Johann Sebastian Bach.

DANCE

HERE IS THE LIST OF THE MOST POPULAR DANCES:
Ballet, Ballroom, Contemporary dance, Hip Hop, Jazz dance, Folk dance, Irish dance, Modern dance, Swing dance, Tap dance

Slovak famous folk dance groups are Lúčnica, SĽUK and Oravan.

LITERATURE

FICTION & NON-FICTION

FICTION BOOKS

  • are books that are not true
  • these books tell a story made up by the author
  • they are about not real people or events 

There are two types of fiction books: 

  • poetry 
  • prose: fairy tale, novel, short story, legend, fable, drama, comedy, science fiction

Boys usually read adventure stories or science fiction.
Girls prefer romantic stories or novels.
Adults like reading detective stories, historical novels or travel books, or biographies

NON-FICTION BOOKS

  • are books that are true
  • these books tell about real people, real places, and real events
  • they provide us information, here belong: textbooks, dictionaries, encyclopedias, biographies, self-help books, cookery books 

FAMOUS WRITERS

Ernest Hemingway (The Old Man and The Sea)
William Shakespeare (Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo nad Juliet)
Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav (Hájniková žena, Bloody Sonnets)
Martin Kukučín (Rysavá jalovica, Neprebudený)

THEATRE

A theatre is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or
actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a
specific place, often a stage. The performers go to a rehearsal before the performance. If the actors forget the text, there is a prompter behind the curtains, ready to help.

FILM

Films are shown on a screen. Movies shot in a foreign language usually have
subtitles, or they are dubbed. A lot of movies are based on a true story.
In the film, we can see:

  • the cast – all the actors in a movie.
  • extras – people who appear in a film only as members of a crowd.
  • a stuntman – a person employed to take an actor’s place in performing dangerous stunts.
  • end credits that show the names and roles of all the people who worked in the film. Actors and actresses have to do many auditions to put on /act a play or a film. Before a new movie is released to cinemas, people can watch a trailer. The purpose of the trailer is to attract an audience to the film.

FILM GENRES

action films, historical films, western films, thrillers, horror, comedy films, musical films,
adventure films, fantasy films, animated films, sci-fi films, romantic films, drama

HERE ARE THE ELEMENTS OF A GREAT MOVIE:

  • good characters
  • simple plot – a simple story is enough to win people’s hearts
  • theme – your message should be clear
  • attention to details – details of the movie are very important
  • good ending -the ending of a story is crucial to the success of a film

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS THAT HELP YOU DESCRIBE A MOVIE: brilliant, low-budget,
violent, gripping, slow, blockbuster, awful = dreadful

GOOD REASONS TO GO TO THE MOVIES:

  • It takes less time to get the whole story.
  • Reading books is time-consuming. It can take a week to read a book.
  • Going to the cinema is a social event and fun because you can go with your friends.
  • Films help us appreciate art.

ARGUMENTS FOR PREFERING BOOKS:

  • we can use our imagination
  • vocabulary expansion
  • memory improvement
  • free entertainment
  • better writing and speaking skills
  • we become wiser and more educated
  • improved concentration

Vocabulary

  1. culture [ˈkʌltʃə] – kultúra
  2. general [ˈdʒenərəl or ˈdʒenrəl] – všeobecný
  3. aim [eɪm] – cieľ, zámer
  4. cherish [ˈtʃerɪʃ] – uchovávať (v srdci), strážiť si, čo je vzácne
  5. entertain [ˌentəˈteɪn] – zabaviť, pobaviť
  6. enrich [ɪnˈrɪtʃ] – obohatiť
  7. promote [prəˈməʊt] – propagovať, podporovať
  8. cultural heritage [ˈkʌltʃərəl ˈherɪtɪdʒ] – kultúrne dedičstvo, odkaz
  9. decorative arts [ˈdekərətɪv or ˈdekrətɪv ɑːts] – dekoratívne umenie
  10. landscape painting / natural scenery [ˈlændˌskeɪp ˈpeɪntɪŋ] / [ˈnætʃrəl ˈsiːnərɪ] – krajinomaľba
  11. nude [njuːd] – akt
  12. brush [brʌʃ] – štetec
  13. paints [peɪnts] – farby
  14. canvas [ˈkænvəs] – maliarske plátno
  15. easel [ˈiːzəl] – maliarsky stojan
  16. triangle [ˈtraɪˌæŋgəl] – trojuholník
  17. square [skweə] – štvorec
  18. rectangle [ˈrekˌtæŋgəl] – obdľžnik
  19. cubist [ˈkjuːbɪst] – kubistický
  20. Dutch [dʌtʃ] – holandský
  21. the Duch [dʌtʃ] – Holanďania
  22. commit suicide [kəˈmɪt ˈsuːɪˌsaɪd] – spáchať samovraždu
  23. unfortunate [ʌnˈfɔːtʃənɪt] – nešťastný
  24. mysterious smile [mɪˈstɪərɪəs smaɪl] – záhadný úsmev
  25. sculpture [ˈskʌlptʃə] – socha, sochárstvo
  26. statue [ˈstætjuː] – socha (postava človeka)
sculpture
  1. marble [ˈmɑːbəl] – mramor
  2. clay [kleɪ] – hlina (hrnčiarska)
  3. Christ The Redeemer Statue [kraɪst  ðə rɪˈdiːmə] – Socha Krista Spasiteľa
  4. Statue of Liberty [ˈstætjuː ˈlɪbətɪ] – Socha Slobody 
  5. performing arts [pəˈfɔːmɪŋ  ɑːts] – predvádzacie umenia (vystupovanie pred publikom)
  6. audience [ˈɔːdɪəns] – diváci, publikum, obecenstvo
  7. bagpipes [ˈbægˌpaɪps] – gajdy
  8. drums [drʌms] – bubny
  9. violin [ˌvaɪəˈlɪn] –  husle
  10. flute [fluːt] – flauta
  11. guitar [gɪˈtɑː] – gitara
  12. play the guitar –  hrať na gitare
  13. accordion [əˈkɔːdɪən] – ťahacia harmonika
  14. harmonica [hɑːˈmɒnɪkə] – fúkacia harmonika
  15. composer [kəmˈpəʊzə] – hudobný skladateľ
  16. conductor [kənˈdʌktə] – dirigent
  17. laymen [ˈleɪmən] – laik, neodborník, amatér
  18. tune [tjuːn] – melódia
  19. catchy [ˈkætʃɪ]  – chytľavé (melódia)
  20. belly dance [ˈbelɪ dɑːns] – brušný tanec
  21. tap dance [tæp  dɑːns] – stepovanie 
  22. fable [ˈfeɪbəl] – bájka
  23. fairy tale [ˈfeərɪ teɪl] – rozprávka
  24. stage [steɪdʒ] – javisko
  25. the curtain [ˈkɜːtən]  – divadelná opona
  26. prompter [ˈprɒmptə] – šepkár v divadle
  27. rehearsal [rɪˈhɜːsəl] – skúška v divadle
  28. actor [ˈæktə] – herec
  29. actress [ˈæktrɪs] – herečka
guitar
  1. screen [skriːn] – premietacie plátno, obrazovka
  2. subtitles [ˈsʌbˌtaɪtəls] – titulky
  3. dubbed [ˈdʌbd] – dabovaný, nahovorený
  4. cast [kɑːst] – účinkujúci, herecké obsadenie
  5. extras [ˈekstrə] – komparz vo filme 
  6. stunt man [ˈstʌntmən] – kaskadér
  7. end credits [ˈkredɪts] – záverečné titulky na konci filmu
  8. audition [ɔːˈdɪʃən]  – konkurz na hereckú rolu
  9. trailer [ˈtreɪlə] – upútavka, ukážka z filmu
  10. cartoon [kɑːˈtuːn] – kreslený film
  11. Cinderella [ˌsɪndəˈrelə] – Popoluška
  12. Sleeping Beauty [sliːpɪŋ ˈbjuːtɪ] – Šípková Ruženka
  13. Little Red Riding Hood [ˈlɪtəl red ˈraɪdɪŋ hʊd] – Červená čiapočka
  14. Three Pigs [θriː pɪg] – Tri prasiatka
  15. Snow White [snəʊ waɪt] – Snehulienka
  16. blockbuster [ˈblɒkˌbʌstə] – filmový trhák
  17. dreadful movie [ˈdredfʊl ˈmuːvɪ] – hrozný, príšerný, trašný film
  18. slow movie [sləʊ ˈmuːvɪ ] – veľmi nudný film
  19. gripping movie [grɪpɪŋ ˈmuːvɪ] – napínavý film
  20. setting [ˈsetɪŋ] – prostredie príbehu (miesto a čas, kedy sa príbeh odohráva)
  21. plot [plɒt] – dej príbehu, zápletka
  22. First Communion [fɜːst kəˈmjuːnjən] – 1.sväté prijímanie
  23. Confirmation [ˌkɒnfəˈmeɪʃən] – birmovanie
  24. we aren’t allowed – nemôžeme
  25. time consuming [taɪm kənˈsjuːmɪŋ] – časovo náročné
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